PHP Database Access Connecting to an SQL Database - Web Development and Design | Tutorial for Java, PHP, HTML, Javascript PHP Database Access Connecting to an SQL Database - Web Development and Design | Tutorial for Java, PHP, HTML, Javascript

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Thursday, June 6, 2019

PHP Database Access Connecting to an SQL Database

PHP Database Access


Connecting to an SQL Database

Problem

You want access to a SQL database to store or retrieve information. Without a database, dynamic websites aren’t very dynamic.


Solution

Example  Connecting with PDO

        // MySQL expects parameters in the string
        $mysql = new PDO('mysql:host=db.example.com', $user, $password);
        // Separate multiple parameters with ;
        $mysql = new PDO('mysql:host=db.example.com;port=31075', $user, $password);
        $mysql = new PDO('mysql:host=db.example.com;port=31075;dbname=food', $user,
                                              $password);
        // Connect to a local MySQL Server
        $mysql = new PDO('mysql:unix_socket=/tmp/mysql.sock', $user, $password);
     
        // PostgreSQL also expects parameters in the string
        $pgsql = new PDO('pgsql:host=db.example.com', $user, $password);
        // Separate multiple parameters with ' ' or ;
        $pgsql = new PDO('pgsql:host=db.example.com port=31075', $user, $password);
        $pgsql = new PDO('pgsql:host=db.example.com;port=31075;dbname=food', $user,
                                            $password);
        // You can put the user and password in the DSN if you like.
        $pgsql = new PDO("pgsql:host=db.example.com port=31075 dbname=food user=$user
                                            password=$password");

        // Oracle
        // If a database name is defined in tnsnames.ora, just put that in the DSN
        // as the value of the dbname parameter
        $oci = new PDO('oci:dbname=food', $user, $password);
        // Otherwise, specify an Instant Client URI
        $oci = new PDO('oci:dbname=//db.example.com:1521/food', $user, $password);

        // Sybase (If PDO is using Sybase's ct-lib library)
        $sybase = new PDO('sybase:host=db.example.com;dbname=food', $user, $password);
        // Microsoft SQL Server (If PDO is using MS SQL Server libraries)
        $mssql = new PDO('mssql:host=db.example.com;dbname=food', $user, $password);
        // DBLib (for FreeTDS)
        $dblib = new PDO('dblib:host=db.example.com;dbname=food', $user, $password);

        // ODBC -- a predefined connection
        $odbc = new PDO('odbc:food');
        // ODBC -- an ad-hoc connection. Provide whatever the underlying driver needs
        $odbc = new PDO('odbc:Driver={Microsoft Access Driver
                                           (*.mdb)};DBQ=C:\\data\\food.mdb;Uid=Chef');

        // SQLite just expects a filename -- no user or password
        $sqlite = new PDO('sqlite:/usr/local/zodiac.db');
        $sqlite = new PDO('sqlite:c:/data/zodiac.db');
        // SQLite can also handle in-memory, temporary databases
        $sqlite = new PDO('sqlite::memory:');
        // SQLite v2 DSNs look similar to v3
        $sqlite2 = new PDO('sqlite2:/usr/local/old-zodiac.db');


Discussion

If all goes well, the PDO constructor returns a new object that can be used for querying the database. If there’s a problem, a PDOException is thrown.

As you can see, the format of the DSN is highly dependent on which kind of database you’re attempting to connect to. In general, though, the first argument to the PDO constructor is a string that describes the location and name of the database you want and the second and third arguments are the username and password to connect to the database with. Note that to use a particular PDO backend, PHP must be built with support for that backend. Use the output from the PDO::getAvailableDrivers() method to determine what PDO backends your PHP setup has.



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